Boosting the cure of phosphine oxide photoinitiators. Sensitisation or Synergy?

W. A. Green, Great Lakes Fine Chemicals (Retired)

Abstract: Sensitization. Energy transfer and triplet energy levels. Phosphine oxides and the problems of surface cure. Additives to address this in the absence of other photoinitiators. Sensitization of phosphine oxides with thioxanthones, anthraquinones, benzoylformate esters and substituted benzophenones. Non-yellowing systems. Boosting cure by sensitization or strong synergy. Most of the above will be assessed under both the Mercury and 395nm LED UV lamps.